Total Real Returns of All Asset Classes

Stocks: The total returns after inflation on the broadest index of stocks available at the time. (Stocks-real-total return index: 1802-2019)

Bonds: The total returns on an index on U.S. government bonds after inflation. (Bonds-real-total return index: 1802-2019)

Bills: Total returns on U.S. Treasury Bills after inflation. (Bills-real-accumulative index: 1802-2019).

Gold: The value of 1 dollar of gold bullion after inflation. (Gold-real-price index: 1802-2019)

Dollar : The purchasing power of one US dollar. (Money: 1802-2019)